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The projects found on the IPAT website were developed using several funding sources. Therefore, the alignment specifications change from task to task. 'The Choose a City' and 'EPA Phoenix' are tasks aligned to the International Society for Technology and Education (ISTE) standards (http://www.iste.org/standards/) while the 'Car Crash', 'Solar Power' and 'Predator-Prey' tasks are aligned to a Coordinated ICT Framework.

The Coordinated ICT Framework builds upon and extends dimensions found in the following national and international framework documents: the International Society for Technology and Education (ISTE) standards, the U.S. National Educational Technology Standards (NETS), National Science Education Standards (NSES), the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Principles and Standards, the International Association for Evaluation of Educational Achievements (IEA)'s Trends In Math and Science Study (TIMSS), and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)'s framework for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). From our alignment study, we culled common categories of ICT strategies that could shape the coherent collection of evidence across studies of students' abilities to use ICT and created the following Coordinated ICT Assessment Framework.
Coordinated ICT Assessment Framework

Information and communication technology (ICT) is ubiquitous in the workplace, home, and academic environments. ICT has the power to transform schools and classrooms with new curricula based on real-world problems. Additionally, ICT can provide scaffolds and tools to enhance learning, give students and teachers more opportunities for feedback and reflection, and build local and global communities that include students, teachers, parents, practicing scientists, and other interested parties. Increasingly, educators are being asked for evidence that students are equipped for the 21st century.

The conceptual basis for our Coordinated ICT Assessment Framework is shown in Figure 1.

The circle depicts the subject matter domain. The left side represents the declarative knowledge of the domain, which can vary from content-lean, factual knowledge to content-rich, schematic knowledge composed of interrelated concepts and principles. The right side represents the problem solving demands of an assessment which range from simple, procedural knowledge for routine problems, to complex, strategic knowledge for non-routine problems. Within the problem space, learners use ICT strategies to take advantage of the capabilities of technologies.

The ICT Framework table, shown below is a standards document and assessment framework that specifies technology proficiency within the academic domains of science and mathematics. It presents a more detailed description of the Coordinated ICT Assessment concept from Figure 1. The table aligns subject domain and ICT knowledge and strategies with general cognitive demands and identifies component strategies derived from analyses of technology use in research and practice.

General Cognitive Demands
ICT Knowledge & Strategies
Sample Component Strategies
Declarative Knowledge
  • Identify and apply required domain information
  • Identify features and functions of technology tools
  • Identify uses of tools
  • For each tool group and specific tool, identify appropriate uses
Procedural Knowledge
  • Operate tools
  • Perform steps
  • Follow directions
  • Use algorithm
  • Produce component and complete operations
Schematic and Strategic Knowledge
  • Plan strategies and procedures
  • Analyze problem
  • Identify needed and given information
  • Pose questions
  • Specify design for data/information collection
  • Specify analysis plan
  • Choose appropriate tools
  • Specify product form and content
  • Access and organize information & data
  • Specify search purpose/topic
  • Navigate directories
  • Generate Web searches
  • Search multiple representational formats
  • Represent and transform information & data
  • Generate representations from data or phenomena
  • Transform data from one form to another
  • Take and record measurements
  • Identify information/data
  • Apply quantitative and qualitative procedures
  • Understand & compare data and information
  • Infer trends/ patterns
  • Produce solutions/findings
  • Use modeling and visualization tools to investigate, compare, test
  • Critically evaluate
  • Evaluate relevance, credibility of information, data, representations
  • Evaluate quality of plan, conduct, analysis, argument, conclusions
  • Communicate ideas, findings, arguments
  • Express questions, ideas clearly & appropriately
  • Present ideas, findings in alternative formats appropriate for audience
  • Present supported argument/findings
  • Design product
  • Compose product to fit constraints, appropriate for audience, purpose
  • Collaborate to solve complex problems and manage information
  • Plan project work and roles
  • Contribute relevant information
  • Fulfill task assignment
  • Incorporate and integrate others information and views
Funding for the development of the Coordinated ICT framework was provided by the National Science Foundation (NSF). (REC 0126350).
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